Carminodoris bifurcata  Baba, 1993

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Carminodoris bifurcata is characterized by a mottled brownish-tan colour, with small black spots on the notum, and by a broad brownish median patch between the rhinophores and the gills The tubercles are relatively small, many of them have a white ring around their base. The rhinophore clubs and the gills are brownish-tan. It is also known as Hoplodoris bifurcata.
Very similar are
Carminodoris flammea which differs by the fiery red mid-dorsal patch, by the larger tubercles, and lacks the small black spots on the notum.
Carminodoris nodulosa which seems to be endemic to Australia and New Zealand.
There was a lot of confusion on the taxonomic placement:
The Sea-Slug Forum placed it originally in the genus Carminodoris, and moved it on 24 Oct 2003 to Hoplodoris, which the Sea-Slug Forum placed in the family Dorididae.
Fahey & Gosliner (2003) synonymised Carminodoris with Hoplodoris, I quote the abstract:
"Analyses indicate that the genus Carminodoris Bergh, 1889 is a junior synonym of Hoplodoris Bergh, 1880."
Dayrat & Gosliner (2005) I quote the classification of clade D at page 209: " Therefore, instead of reallocating some Carminodoris species to Hoplodoris, it is actually some Hoplodoris species that need to be transferred to Carminodoris."
Let me quote the discussion of Asteronotus raripilosa at page 185 in Dayrat (2010):
"In other words, the species names transferred from Carminodoris to Hoplodoris by Fahey and Gosliner (2003) should actually be transferred back to Carminodoris."
WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species lists both genera as accepted: Carminodoris and Hoplodoris.
Gosliner et al. (2008) use Carminodoris at page 168, Gosliner et al. (2015) also use Carminodoris at page 175
NUDIPIXEL and WoRMS use Hoplodoris.
I follow Gosliner et al. (2008) and Gosliner et al. (2015) and place it in the genus Carminodoris in the family Discodorididae.
Fahey, S. J. & Gosliner, T. M. (2003) Mistaken identities: On the Discodorididae genera Hoplodoris Bergh, 1880 and Carminodoris Bergh, 1889 (Opisthobranchia, Nudibranchia).
Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 54(10): 169-208.
Dayrat, B., & T. M. Gosliner. 2005. Species names and metaphyly: a case study in Discodorididae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Euthyneura, Nudibranchia, Doridina).
Zoologica Scripta 34(2):199-224.
Dayrat, B. 2010. A Monographic Revision of Basal Discodorid Sea Slugs (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Nudibranchia: Doridina).
Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 61, suppl I: 1-403.
Gosliner, Terrence M., David W. Behrens & Ángel Valdés. 2008. Indo-Pacific Nudibranchs and Sea Slugs.
Sea Challengers Natural History Books. Gig Harbor, Washington. 426pp.
Gosliner, T.M, D.W. Behrens & Á.Valdés. 2015. Nudibranch &Sea Slug Identification Indo-Pacific.
New World Publications Inc. Jacksonville, FL. 408 pp.
More information on Carminodoris bifurcata as Hoplodoris bifurcata are on Bill Rudman's Sea-Slug Forum!
How to cite:
Köhler, E. (2019), published 19 June 2019, Carminodoris bifurcata  Baba, 1993
available from https://www.Philippine-Sea-Slugs.com/Nudibranchia/Doridina/Carminodoris_bifurcata.htm


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