Actinocyclus verrucosus  Ehrenberg, 1831

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Actinocyclus verrucosus is characterized by a few large rounded tubercles, which have dark brown/black tips, often surrounded by a lighter ring. The background colour ranges from brown to cream-white, depending on the density of the cream white speckling scattered all over the brown mantle. It has a tough leathery mantle, with a circlet of many short gills held in a cup-shaped arrangement.
Let me quote Bill Rudman: "Until recently most specimens of Actinocyclus were identified as the single species Actinocyclus japonicus (Eliot, 1913) because of the difficulty in understanding earlier descriptions. Valdés (2002) reviewed the genus and has proposed we recognise two species, A. verrucosus and A. papillatus."
The above specimen was misidentified and posted on 5 January 2012 at these websites as Actinocyclus papillatus (Bergh, 1878) [Sphaerodoris].
Jim Anderson sent on 21 September 2012 a note that he has added Actinocyclus verrucosus to his website Philippine Nudibranchs, this is clearly the same species, so I realized my mistake and changed it into Actinocyclus verrucosus  Ehrenberg, 1831.
More information on Actinocyclus verrucosus are on Bill Rudman's Sea-Slug Forum!
How to cite:
Köhler, E. (2017), published 23 January 2017, Actinocyclus verrucosus  Ehrenberg, 1831
available from https://www.Philippine-Sea-Slugs.com/Nudibranchia/Doridina/Actinocyclus_verrucosus.htm


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