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Limenandra confusa is in most publications as Baeolidia nodosa (Haefelfinger & Stamm, 1958) or as Limenandra nodosa Haefelfinger & Stamm, 1958, which was considered to have a circumtropical distribution, IPN lists at page 406 records from Tanzania, Madagascar to Australia, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, to the Philippines, Japan, the Marshall Islands, and Hawai'i.
Until Carmona et al. (2013a) clarified: "Limenandra nodosa is amphiatlantic but is not so widely distributed as it is referred to in the bibliography. Specimens from the Pacific (the Philippines and Mexico) attributed to Limenandra nodosa appear to be a distinct species that is sister to L. nodosa (the Atlantic and the Mediterranean)."
Many authors have considered Limenandra as a junior synonym of Baeolidia, Carmona et al. (2013a) confirmed the validity of this genus and its monophyly. "Baeolidia and Limenandra are not even sister groups."
Limenandra confusa is characterized by concentric rings forming 'targets' down the dorsal midline, and by papillae on the cerata. The rhinophore clubs have posterior papillae.
Very similar are:
Limenandra fusiformis which lacks the papillae on the cerata.
Limenandra nodosa which is restricted to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
This species was posted on 25 June 2013 at these website as Limenandra sp. 01 Genus: Haefelfinger & Stamm, 1958.
Gosliner, Terrence M., David W. Behrens & Ángel Valdés. 2008. Indo-Pacific Nudibranchs and Sea Slugs. Sea Challengers Natural History Books.
Gig Harbor, Washington. 426 pp.
Carmona L., Pola M., Gosliner T.M. & Cervera J.L. 2013. A tale that morphology fails to tell: A molecular phylogeny of Aeolidiidae (Aeolidida,
Nudibranchia, Gastropoda). PLoS ONE 8(5): e63000. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063000,
available online at:
Leila Carmona, Marta Pola, Terrence M. Gosliner, & Juan Lucas Cervera. 2013 . The end of a long controversy: systematics of the genus Limenandra (Mollusca: Nudibranchia: Aeolidiidae) http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10152-013-0367-y
download PDF from facebook click here.
How to cite:
Köhler, E. (2019), published 5 July 2019, Limenandra confusa Carmona, Pola, Gosliner & Cervera, 2013
available from https://www.Philippine-Sea-Slugs.com/Nudibranchia/Cladobranchia/Limenandra_confusa.htm